Geraldine S. Cheok, Alan M. Lytle, and Kamel S. Saidi, Ph.D.’s default image

By Geraldine S. Cheok, Alan M. Lytle, and Kamel S. Saidi, Ph.D.

3-D Imaging Terminology

One of the documents to come out of committee E57 was E2544-08 -- "Standard terminology for three- dimensional (3-D) imaging systems." What follows is an excerpt from the document of some of the 3-D imaging terminology. To keep the excerpt short, we have included the definition of just a few of the terms listed.

3.2 Definitions of terms specific to this standard

3-D imaging system--a noncontact measurement instrument used to produce a 3-D representation (e.g., a point cloud) of an object or a site.

 

Angular increment--the angle between samples, Da, where Da = ai- ai-1, in either the azimuth or elevation directions (or a combination of both) with respect to the instrument’s internal frame of reference

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By Brenda Boughton

Electronic records--theircreation, modification, maintenance, retrieval, and archiving--can create ongoing challenges for all organizations. For industries regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), such as pharmaceutical companies, medical device manufacturers, food processing plants, and biotech companies, the FDA’s Code of Federal Regulations Title 21 Part 11 applies to the specifications, use, and control of electronic records and electronic signatures.

The requirements of FDA 21 CFR Part 11 for electronic records are based on good practices, organization, and, most of all, common sense to ensure the efficient and secure handling of these records. In general, these requirements state that:

• All information is complete, and all records can be tracked to their originator and corresponding records.

• Appropriate securities are in place to ensure that tampering that would alter the record from its original intent does not take place.

• Only the appropriate parties can access the records, and only those so identified can create, modify, or review those records.

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By Quality Digest

 

Download directory


Welcome to Quality Digest's 2009 Six Sigma Services and Software buyers guide. This handy reference tool includes more than 200 companies that help you implement Six Sigma within your organization. Included in each description are the company name, location, phone and fax numbers, web site, and an acronym representing whether the organization offers Six Sigma services (SVC), software (SW), or both. Be sure to check this buyers guide online at www.qualitydigest.com/content/buyers-guides for additional information on these companies.

As with all of our directories, this guide is intended as a starting point to help readers choose the right solution for their needs. Quality Digest hasn't evaluated, nor do we endorse, any of the products listed in this directory. Good luck in your search for the right Six Sigma service or software provider to suit your needs.

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By Blaine Clapper

The need for control over manufacturing processes has never been higher than in today's environment. As this need has increased, so too has the requirement for better management of the equipment used to measure and control manufacturing processes. Fundamental to managing this equipment properly is ensuring that it's correctly calibrated and maintained.

Unfortunately, while many managers are faced with managing a growing number of instruments and increased responsibility, their resources are being reduced. One popular method for minimizing the resources necessary is the implementation of commercial off-the-shelf calibration-management software (CMS).

Desirable CMS Features

 

Maintains and retrieves master equipment, calibration history and measurement data records

 

Automatically schedules future calibration due dates

Kevin Cacioppo’s picture

By Kevin Cacioppo

“The gulf between satisfied customers and completely satisfied customers can swallow a business.” —Harvard Business Review, November/December 1995

As markets shrink, companies are scrambling to boost customer satisfaction and keep their current customers rather than devoting additional resources to chase potential new customers. The claim that it costs five to eight times as much to get new customers than to hold on to old ones is key to understanding the drive toward benchmarking and tracking customer satisfaction.

Measuring customer satisfaction is a relatively new concept to many companies that have been focused exclusively on income statements and balance sheets. Companies now recognize that the new global economy has changed things forever. Increased competition, crowded markets with little product differentiation and years of continual sales growth followed by two decades of flattened sales curves have indicated to today's sharp competitors that their focus must change.

William H. Denney, Ph.D.’s default image

By William H. Denney, Ph.D.

“We are going to win, and the industrial West is going to lose: There’s nothing much you can do about it because the reasons for your failure are within yourselves.”

--Konosuke Matsushita  

They work tirelessly to change our world irreversibly. If they succeed at what they’re doing and aren’t challenged, our way of life as we know it will end. While we whine about our bosses, our organizations, and our government; while we do the minimum that our jobs require; while we flip-flop through the mall and watch Oprah they’re planning, learning, and executing. When we’re tucked away in our beds, tossing and turning in restless sleep, they’re even busier. They don’t seem to tire; their passion is relentless. To them, weekends and holidays are inconsequential in their desire to have what we have.

We’re at war, but we seem oblivious to it. Our children’s future, our families, even our liberties are at risk, but for now, apathy is our primary defense. Secure in our ignorance of what’s happening far away, we think that we’re safe. But we’re not.

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By Charles Wells

Most in the electronic manufacturing services industry are acutely aware of the growing problem of counterfeit and substandard electronic components within the supply chain, as well as the headaches that they cause.

Although industry and governments are working diligently in addressing counterfeit abatement, you may already have one of the most useful tools in combating phony parts in place right on your production floor.

Thomas Hill, Ph.D.; Robert Eames; and Sachin Lahoti’s default image

By Thomas Hill, Ph.D.; Robert Eames; and Sachin Lahoti

Data mining methods have many origins, including drawing on insights into learning as it naturally occurs in humans (cognitive science), and advances in computer science and algorithm design on how to best detect patterns in unstructured data. Although traditional statistical methods for analyzing data, based on statistical theories and models, are now widely accepted throughout various industries, data mining methods have only been widely embraced in business for a decade or two. However, their effectiveness for root cause analysis, and for modeling, optimizing and improving complex processes, are making data mining increasingly popular--and even necessary--in many real-world discrete manufacturing, batch manufacturing, and continuous-process applications.

There is no single, generally agreed-upon definition of data mining. As a practical matter, whenever data describing a process are available, in manufacturing for example, then any systematic review of those data to identify useful patterns, correlations, trends, and so forth, could be called “data mining.” Put simply, data mining uncovers nuggets of information from a sometimes vast repository of data describing the process of interest.

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By Peter Schulz

 

The idea of mixing optics and measurement has its origins hundreds of years ago in the realm of pure science, i.e., astronomy (telescopy) and microscopy. Manufacturing first adopted optics for routine inspection and measurement of machined and molded parts in the 1920s with James Hartness’ development of instruments capable of projecting the magnified silhouette of a workpiece onto a ground glass screen. Hartness, as longtime chairman of the United States’ National Screw-Thread Commission, applied his pet interest in optics to the problem of screw-thread inspection. For many years, the Hartness Screw-Thread Comparator was a profitable product for the Jones and Lamson Machine Company, of which Hartness was president.

Horizontal vs. vertical instrument configurations

 

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By Tom Pyzdek


In 1988, Motorola Corp. became one of the first companies to receive the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award. The award strives to identify those  excellent firms that are worthy role models for other businesses. One of Motorola's innovations that attracted a great deal of attention was its Six Sigma program. Six Sigma is, basically, a process quality goal. As such, it falls into the category of a process capability (Cp) technique.

The traditional quality paradigm defined a process as capable if the process's natural spread, plus and minus three sigma, was less than the engineering tolerance. Under the assumption of normality, this translates to a process yield of 99.73 percent. A later refinement considered the process location as well as its spread (Cpk) and tightened the minimum acceptable so that the process was at least four sigma from the nearest engineering requirement. Motorola's Six Sigma asks that processes operate such that the nearest engineering requirement is at least plus or minus six sigma from the process mean.

Motorola's Six Sigma program also applies to attribute data. This is accomplished by converting the Six Sigma requirement to equivalent conformance levels (see Figure 1).